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  SQL Server Tips by Gama and Naughter




Triggers are objects bound to tables; they contain TSQL statements and will execute for each row modified. INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements will cause a trigger to execute.


There are two types of triggers in SQL Server: AFTER and INSTEAD OF.


AFTER triggers

This type of trigger will execute after the operation that set it off is completed. The trigger will only execute after all the referential cascade actions and constraint checks reached completion.

AFTER triggers are the type used by previous versions of SQL Server while INSTEAD OF appeared with SQL Server 2000. This is something to be considered when updating a database and reusing code.


Example: create a trigger that will accept inserting data only on the first five days of the month, in table jobs from database Pubs.




/* * Prevent INSERT if not within the first 5 days of the month */

IF (day(getdate())>5)


        RAISERROR 44447 'The record can''t be added. Insertion is restricted to first 5 days of the week.'




Trying to add a new record (assuming a day of the month above five):


INSERT jobs(job_desc, min_lvl, max_lvl) VALUES( 'Trainee', 11, 12)


Will result on an error:


Server: Msg 44447, Level 16, State 1, Procedure jobs_ITrig, Line 6

The record can't be added. Insertion is restricted to first 5 days of the week.

The above book excerpt is from:

Super SQL Server Systems
Turbocharge Database Performance with C++ External Procedures

ISBN: 0-9761573-2-2
Joseph Gama, P. J. Naughter


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